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Learning Commons

Need more citation help?

See our Research Process guide, or visit the Advanced Writing Centre in the Learning Commons (Building 3).

Video Sources

When citing film and other media, use the citation form for the format in which you watched the work being cited. In other words, if you watched a film on DVD or VHS, cite it, as a DVD or VHS (not the film original). If you are citing a trailer for a theatrical movie that you watched on the internet, use the citation format for online resource. If you saw a movie in the theater, use citation format for film.

Your APA citation for a video contains the following elements in this order. 

  • Producer's Last Name, First Initial (Producer) &
  • Director's Last Name, First Initial (Director)
  • (Year)
  • Title [Format: e.g. DVD, VHS, video file, etc.)
  • Country:
  • Studio
  • Available from URL.


YouTube video:   Shimabukuro, J. (2006, April 22). Ukulele weeps [Video file]. Retrieved from

DVD:   Spielberg, S., Royce, I., Gordon, M., & Levinson, G. (Producers), & Spielberg, S. (Director). (2004). Saving Private Ryan [DVD]. United States: Universal.

Online Trailer:  Lucasfilm, Ltd. "Star Wars Trailer." 05 November 1999. Online video clip. Star Wars Official Site. Accessed on 02 April 2008.

Audio Sources

To cite a music recording, provide the following information in this order.

  • Composer Last Name, First Initial.
  • (Year)
  • Composition title.
  • [Recorded by Artist].
  • On Title of Recording.
  • [Format]
  • City:
  • Label.
  • Retrieved from Database Name or URL

Namahoe, C. (1929). Le Nani [Recorded by G. Keawe]. On Hana hou! Vol. 1 [CD]. Honolulu: Hula Records.

Maddeford, L. (2006, January 28). Russian roulette [Audio file]. Retrieved from Music Alley database.

Steve Porter. (1908) Christmas morning at Clancy’s. Victor 16936, 10” LP. Camden: NJ. Retrieved from National Jukebox, Library of Congress (